After the death of Elizabeth, James VI of Scotland became the king of England, named James I.
James I believed in absolutism because he had been in touch with France (he was the son of a French).
He had excluded both the Catholics both the Puritans from the Government, he was in favour of High Church.
The Catholics organized the "Gunpowder Plot", because they wanted to blow up (far esplodere) the House of Parliament while the king and his ministers were sitting. Nowadays on November 5 there is a popular festival in which there are a lot of fireworks (fuochi d'artificio), and the children make a straw guy (pupazzo) and after they burn it in the square.
When James I died, his son, Charles I, became the new king of England.
He considered himself the supreme head of the Country: he dissolved the Parliament. After that, he needed the help of Parliament, for the wars against France and Spain, so he was compelled to sign the "Petition of Rights" to summon (convocare) the Parliament again, in which they asked that no tax had to be imposed without the approval of the Parliament, and that no man could be imprisoned without a trial (processo).
He refused the "Petition" and ruled the Country as an absolute monarch. (Charles I, from a religious point of view, was in favour the High Church.) But in 1640 there were some rebellions in Scotland, so he had to summon the Parliament again; after 3 weeks he dissolved it: it is remembered as "the short Parliament". After a short time, he summoned the Parliament in which there was a great opposition to the king ("Long Parliament"): infact, it asked the king to accept the "Petition of Rights"; when the king refused, the Civil War begun. Continua »