(1) SCHNAFFER points out that “ any political action is prepared, accompained, controlled ,and influenced
by language ”. So language is vital to the process of transforming political will (=volontà politica) into social
Language it can be used for coercion or for manipulation of information (totalitarian regimes) ,and for the
persuasion in debate (democracies) .
= skill of pesuasion (=abilità di persuadere)
(2) ARISTOTLE defines rethoric as the art of the persuasive discourse, the use of the words
made by human agents to form attitudes or to induce actions in other human agents.
Language ,in its “directive function”, it’s used (= è usato) to seek (=nel cercare) to affect (=di modificare) the
behaviour of the addressee (=il comportamento della persona alla quale ci si rivolge) . From Aristotle’ s point of
view, rethoric is seen as a natural and everyday human activity.
For (3) PLATO, the rethorician (=il retorico) is a ‘speech-rigger’. Rethoric is manipulative : there is a deep deficit between the complex-sounding rethorical argument ,and the truth (=c’è una grande differenza tra
l’argomento trattato in modo retorico,con parole complesse ,e la verità) . So the rethorician tryes to manipulate his audience for personal ends, hiding the truth with the use of a complex-sounding language.
Today we can call this aspect of the rethoric art as “ mere rethoric ” : the use of high-sounding ,but empty language.