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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Riasunto sulla rivoluzione industriale del 18° secolo...riassunto in inglese con relativa traduzione (2 pagine formato doc)

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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The term “Industrial Revolution” was first used in the 1820s by some French publicists and became a common expression after 1884 when a book appeared with that title. The main characteristic of the Industrial Revolution were machines. We use machines to cut down the cost of production so we can make more money. But if we make more products to make more money, we need more customers. Once, however trade expanded new ways of production were sought. In addition, trade created competition and we can see that the expansion of trade was the first step towards the Industrial Revolution. It was during the reign of Elizabeth I that English trade began to Flourish and that many chartered companies were established. A charter was a grant give by the Queen to a company to trade in particular country or in a particular product. The most important were the Eastland Company which traded in Scandinavia and Baltic, the Levant Company which traded with the Ottoman Empire, the African Company which traded in African slaves and the East India Company which traded with India. Besides the growth of these companies, the method of trade themselves improved. Perhaps the most important of these improvements was the founding of the Bank of England in 1964. By 1707, after the union of England and Scotland, England had the largest internal market in Europe. Before the Industrial Revolution, trade was considered the source of all wealth. The more a country exported and less it imported, the wealthier it was. This was the idea behind the British Empire. Britain's overseas companies brought in large amounts of wealth, a large part of which came from the slave trade. Trade therefore stimulated technical innovation. The first of this invention was the flying shuttle invented by John Kay which improves greatly the production of the weaver. Initially, five or more spinners were needed to supply one weaver with the thread he needed. With this invention even more spinners were needed. Another invention was the cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney. The cotton gin was a machine that separated the cotton seeds from the fibres. With this invention America could supply the English Industry with all the cotton it needed. LA RIVOLUZIONE INDUSTRIALE Il termine ”rivoluzione francese” fu usato per la prima volta nel 1820 da alcuni pubblicisti francesi e divenne un espressione comune dopo il 1884 quando un libro apparse con quel titolo. Le principali caratteristiche della rivoluzione industriale furono le macchine. Noi usiamo le macchine per tagliare i costi della produzione così noi possiamo fare più soldi. Ma se noi produciamo più prodotti, per fare più soldi, abbiamo bisogno di più acquirenti. Una volta che il mercato si espanse, il bisogno di fornire merci per più del mercato locale, fu avvertito e si cercarono nuovi modi di produzione. In aggiunta il commercio creò la concorrenza. Le città che producevano più merci Continua »

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