Riassunto per tesina in inglese sull'età puritana (Puritan age) (6 pagine formato doc)
ETA' PURITANA: RIASSUNTO PER TESINA IN INGLESE
Inglese, A Puritan Age - Civil War (1642-1651) broke out in England as a result of the clashes between Charles I and Parliament. The Civil war was the focal point of the century: it ended with the victory for the Roundheads (Cromwell’s supporters) over the Cavaliers (the king’s supporters). Despite some opposition from several more moderate members of Parliament, Charles I was beheaded in 1649, the monarchy was abolished and a Commonwealth was created in which State and Church became one.
The Commonwealth Republic. The term Commonwealth was used by the reformers to denote the form of government they wished to estabilish. The Commonwealth Republic that was created lasted from the execution of Charles I in 1649 to the restoration of the king (Charles II) in 1660.
During this period England was subjected to the severe rule of the Puritans whose religious spirit would admit no toleration. A gloomy atmosphere enveloped English society. Not content with the work of the Commonwealth Parliament, Oliver Cromwell, the great Puritan leader abolished Parliament (1653) and rules as “Lord Protector”. What resulted was a dictatorship. Towards the end of this period it became obvious that Oliver Cromwell’s son and successor, Richard, was incapable of ruling as Protector with the same competence as his father, who had died in 1658. Tired of Puritan rule, Parliament recalled Charles I’s son (who had escaped to France) back to England. The people too were tired of the severe despotism of the Puritans and welcomed the return of the monarchy in the person of Charles II. The return of the monarchy under Charles II is referred to as the Restoration.
Puritan literature. The influence of the political situation on the life of the country is reflected in the literature of the time. Poets were even grouped according to their political sympathies: there were poets, the followers of Jonson, who were knows as the Cavaliers poets on account of their sympathy for the king; and others, the greatest of whom was Milton, who, on account of their affillation to the Puritan cause and support of Cromwell, were called the Roundhead poets. The struggle for change and the break up of previously existing values, evident in the political and social events of the time, were also apparent in the literary movements preferred during the Commonwealth period. Two groups in particular indicate the changes brought about by the victory of Cromwell and the Puritan cause. The metaphysical poets with their rational and intellectualised poetry, and writers like Milton and Bunyan reflected the stern attitude of the Puritan psyche and ethos then domination the country.