Industrial revolution

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Breve ricerca sulla rivoluzione industriale in lingua inglese (2 pagine formato doc)

Great Britain was the world  leader  in the creation  of modern industry.
The industrialization process began in the eighteenth century and was called  the Industrial Revolution. It was due to the invention of machines and the construction of canals and railways to carry goods.
Before 1698, the only power people had was that produced by their own muscles and those of animals. In that year an English engineer, Thomas Savery, built a steam pump to remove water from mines. A series of inventions followed his discovery and revolutionized the textile industry in Britain.
The first invention that transformed the textile  industry was the flying shuttle, invented by John Kay in 1733. It permitted  manufacturers to produce cotton clothes more quickly, so that the spinners could not keep pace with the weavers.
Later in 1764 James Hargraves  invented the spinning jenny that enabled one person to spin as much thread as sixteen. A still greater impetus towards industrialization was given by the improvement made in the steam engine by James Watt in 1765.
The rise of industry changed  living conditions. Before the Industrial Revolution, most people lived in the country  and worked on the land.
During the Industrial Revolution many factories developed in or near towns, and the new towns grew up around the industries. Many families moved from the countryside to the cities to find work in the new factories.
Their living and working conditions were very poor. In towns workers lived in slums and the result was an increase in disease and ill health.
In factories they worked in very bad conditions . In particular women and children were forced to accept many hours of labour and lower wages, a third or a sixth of a man’s wage.
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