Apollo 11 was the first mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth (3 pagine formato doc)
Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) Description Apollo 11 was the first mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth.
On 20 July 1969 two astronauts (Apollo 11 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and LM pilot Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin Jr.) landed in Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility) on the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Michael Collins) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 21 July and the astronauts returned to Earth on 24 July.
Mission Profile After launch on Saturn V SA-504 on 16 July 1969 at 13:32 UT (9:32 a.m. EDT) from pad 39A of Kennedy Space Center, Apollo 11 entered Earth orbit. After 1 1/2 Earth orbits, the S-IVB stage was re-ignited at 16:16:16 UT for a translunar injection burn of 5 minutes, 48 seconds putting the spacecraft on course for the Moon. The CSM separated from the S-IVB stage containing the LM 33 minutes later, turned around and docked with the LM at 16:56:03 UT. About an hour and 15 minutes later the S-IVB stage was injected into heliocentric orbit. During translunar coast a color TV transmission was made from Apollo 11 and on 17 July a 3-second mid-course correction burn of the main engine was performed. Lunar orbit insertion was achieved on 19 July at 17:21:50 UT by a retrograde firing of the main engine for 357.5 seconds while the spacecraft was behind the Moon and out of contact with Earth. A later 17 second burn circularized the orbit. On 20 July Armstrong and Aldrin entered the LM for final checkout. At 18:11:53 the LM and CSM separated. After a visual inspection by Collins, the LM descent engine fired for 30 seconds at 19:08 UT, putting the craft into a descent orbit with a closest approach 14.5 km above the Moon's surface. At 20:05 the LM descent engine fired for 756.3 seconds and descent to the lunar surface began. The LM landed at 20:17:40 UT (4:17:40 p.m. EDT) in Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility), Armstrong reporting, "Houston, Tranquility Base here - the Eagle has landed." Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface at 02:56:15 UT on 21 July (10:56:15 p.m. July 20 EDT) stating, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind", and Aldrin followed 19 minutes later. The astronauts deployed the EASEP and other instruments, took photographs, and collected 21.7 kg of lunar rock and soil. The astronauts traversed a total distance of about 250 meters. The EVA ended at 5:11:13 UT when the astronauts returned to the LM and closed the hatch. The LM lifted off from the Moon at 17:54:01 UT on 21 July after 21 hours, 36 minutes on the lunar surface. After docking with the CSM at 21:34:00 UT, the LM was jettisoned into lunar orbit at 00:01:01 UT on 22 July. Transearth injection began at 04:54:42 UT on 22 July with a 2 1/2 minute