Dinastia Tudor, Dinastia Stuart e Dinastia di Hannover: riassunto sulle dinastie (2 pagine formato doc)
TUDOR, STUART E HANNOVER: RIASSUNTO
Dinastia Tudor, Stuart e Hannover: riassunto in inglese.
The Tudors and the Stuarts - Henry VII Henry VII, who came to the English throne when the Wars of the Roses ended, was the first king of the Tudor dynasty.He made the monarchy supreme and turned England into a strong modern state. Henry’s foreign policy aimed at making England’s trading position stronger. He also laid the foundations of English naval power. THE REFORMATION Henry VIII succeeded his father. The main event during his reign was the Reformation. As a young man, he had been married to Catherine of Aragon, his brother’s widow, who some years later had given him a daughter, Mary, but was now unlikely to bear him a son. He had fallen in love with Anne Boleyn, a lady-in-waiting, and asked the Pope for a divorce in order to marry her. But the Pope would not declare his first marriage invalid, and so Henry broke with Rome and declared himself “Supreme Head of the Church” in England. The king dissolved the monasteries and took their wealth.
DINASTIA DEGLI STUART RIASSUNTO
The social charities such as schools and hospitals for the poor mostly disappeared. Another consequence of Henry’s policy was that Ireland remained a Catholic country and this marked the beginning of the Irish question. Anne Boleyn, who had given Henry VIII a daughter, Elizabeth, was executed, and the king remarried four more times. MARY I Mary I, during the short reign of Edward VI, refused to conform to the new religion, since she was a devout Catholic. In 1553, she became Queen. She repealed anti-catholic legislation and revived Catholic practices. Her marriage to Philip II of Spain was followed by the persecution of 300 Protestants, which earned her the name of “Bloody Mary”. QUEEN ELIZABETH I In 1558, Elizabeth, became Queen of a divided nation, the majority of which was anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish. She was a political genius of the first rank. After twenty years of religious discord, economic depression and social upheavel, the country needed order and harmony. Elizabeth brought unity and defeated England’s enemies at home and abroad.
She ruled wisely through her Privy Council of about 20 members, she moved round her country on royal journeys, staying with the principal noblemen, so that a great deal of her people could see her. Her court was brilliant, and poets, musicians and actors were anxious to entertain and honour her. She was unmarried, she used to say that “the Queen was married to her people”. THE DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA Elizabeth recognised Spain as her main trade rival and enemy. English sea-captains like Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh captured the Spanish ships that carried precious metals, tobacco and slaves from America and Africa. In 1588 the war against Spain started. 130 Spanish galleons appeared in the English channel, they were slow and heavy, while the English ships were lower, faster and armed with long-range-guns. However, the Spanish Armada was also defeated thanks to the help of the bad weather. KING BY DIVINE RIGHT With the death of Elizabeth in 1603, the Tudor line died out and James VI of Scotland, became the first Stuart king of England.