MODERNISMO DI JOYCE
Modernism. The term “modernism” usually indicates the 20th century literature and arts which expressed the reaction against 19th century ideas and conventions.
The Modernism explores the current reality from different points of view, he loses the objectivity and gives more importance to the subject than to the object.
Sigmund Freud studied human mind: in his studies acquired a great importance the Unconscious, the hidden part of ourselves, which could not be controlled by our reason.
One of Freud’s collaborators in the development of psychoanalitic theory is the Swiss spychologist Carl Jung who theorized the existence of a collettive unconscious which derives from the ancestral experience of the group.
The collettive unconscious works on a symbolic level so common objects assume a symbolic meaning to which man he respons unconsciously.
The concept of relativity, linked to the theory of relativity by Einstein, is used also in anthropology :there were no better or worse societies because behaviours depended on enviroment.
There was nothing which could be taken for granted(dato per scontato) in literary form and this stimulated authors to try new way of expression.
The reality which has to be rapresented, was fragmentary and changeable one: the variety of the modern urban life.
Characteristics of modernism in literature are:
- the breackdown of traditional literary genres
- the fragmentation of traditional ideas of time and place
- the collapse of traditional plot
- an use of a complex language
- the use of myth
- the adoption of free verse
- an important emphasis on the psychological truth and psychoanalisis rather than on realistic details.
To the first generation modernists belong Thomas Eliot who wrote “The Waste Land”, James Joyce who wrote "Ulysses" and Virgina Wolf who wrote "Mrs Dolloway."
Most of modernist literature deals with unconscious in daily life, and to describe the unconscious it is necessary use a new expressive form: the stream of conscious. So called because it tries to reproduce the continuos flow of human thought. In according to William James, the modernists put togheter apparently distant or incongruous ideas and images, presented with no rational order
Modernists’ new revolutionary fiction reflected their lack of faith in traditional values, the trauma of WW I, the disillusion about modern myths such as progress, science, and technology.
To compensate for this sometimes classical mith were freely incorporated into modern narrative(Joice uses the Odyssey epic pattern to describe the journey through city life.)
James Joyce. James Joyce was born in Dublin in 1882 into a middle class catholic family, his father was involved in political questions but he retired after 1891. Finding life in Dublin an obstacle to his own artistic development he committed himself to a life of exile: he went to Paris, Pola, Trieste and Zurich. He wrote his first works: Dubliners, A Portrait of the artista as young man and Ulysses.
He was becoming blind. He came back to Paris and published Ulysses in 1922 and started to write Finnegans Wake. In 1940, when France was occupied by the Germans Joyce and his family went to Zurich where he died in 1941.
He had a complex relation with Ireland : at a surface level he seems reject everything that was Irish but every work deals with Ireland, with Dublin in particular.
He reproduce Dublin’s reality with a lot of details because he said Dublin is the Omphalos(ombellico), the navel of the world.