DINASTIA TUDOR E STUART: RIASSUNTO
English Renaissance.The English Renaissance flourished during the 16th century and it was very different from Italian’ one. In Italy there was a period of great instability, a great explosion of individual expression. In Northern Europe the reformation promoted individual genius and encouraged the spread of learning in different fields: philosophical, literary, moral, social, scientific and religious. This spread was assisted by the printing press, brought to England by Caxton in 1476. For example the oxford and Cambridge university expanded greatly during the Renaissance. The human figure and human thought began to be more important than the Divine sphere, that idea influenced the new cultural movement called Humanism. The spirit of the Renaissance was characterized by the intellectual curiosity, in particular to the ancient Greece culture, that had partly been oppose by the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages because of its paganism an spirit of free enquiry.
A key figure of Renaissance humanism was Erasmus of Rotterdam, who translate the Bible. He hoped to create, with the spread of Latin throughout Europe, a lingua franca and his humanist thinking had a strong influence on generation of writers. Renaissance was an age of confusion, because old medieval ideas of myth coexisted with the new progressive discoveries of science. The most important science discovery by Copernicus was that the Earth and the other planets orbited around the sun, but he didn’t published his theory till is death, in 1543, for fear of Church censure, because, with this new view of Earth position, was more difficult to give man the cosmic importance assigned to him in Christian theology.
DINASTIA TUDOR IN INGLESE
Tudor and Stuart. After the war of the two Roses a new dynasty emerged: the Tudors. The first king was Henry VII, during his reign England saw a period of stability. In 1509 Henry VIII came to the throne: he was a typical Renaissance prince who maintained a magnificent court because he liked music and dancing. He married six time. To marry Anne Boleyn and divorced to Catherine of Aragon, who had given him Mary I, Henry parted from catholic Church with an Act of supremacy in the 1534 and declared himself ‘Supreme Head of the Church of England’. Eventually Anna Boleyn after the marriage, gave him a daughter, Elisabeth I, but he was executed. Thomas More, the chancellor of the king, because he continued to object the King’s decision of divorce, he was executed, He was a great humanist. With the third wife, Jane Seymour, Henry had a male heir: Edward VI, but he died at the age of sixteen. Mary I was known as ‘Bloody Mary’ because of her persecution of protestants to restore the Catholic Religion.