Gli Stuart (1603-1714)

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Descrizione storica e situazione sociale nell'epoca degli Stuart in Inghilterra, in inglese e in italiano (4 pagine formato doc)

In 1603 there was King Jones I of England.
He was the first Stuarts King of England. When he became King he dismissed Parliament and tried to rule without it. His son Charles I shared his father's belief in absolute monarchy but he needed money and Parliament wouldn't support him.

THE COMMONWEALTH: the conflict between Crown and Parliament led to the Civil War between the royalist Cavaliers who supported the King, and the puritans Roundheads who supported by general Cromwell. The House of London was abolisched because it had sited with the King. Britain became a commonwealth or republic with Cromwell as Lord Protector from 1656 to 1658.

THE RESTORATION: in 1660, after Cromwell's death, a new Parliament, whose numbers decided to bring back the Stuart King Charles II and to re-establish the Anglican Church as the official Church of England.

THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION: Charles was succeeded by his son James II.
In 1668 Parliament offered the Crown to James daughter Mary and her Protestant husband William of Orange. For the first time it was Parliaments that chose the Monarch. This important political change was called the Glorious Revolution. After that William III defended the Catholic forces of James II in Ireland and discrimination against Catholic Irish was intensified. The religious and political problems were settled with the Bill of Rights and the Toleration Act. The former limited the King's power and turned Britain into a constitutional monarchy.