Il teatro inglese: Shakespeare e Marlowe

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Appunti in inglese sulla nascita e sull'evoluzione del teatro inglese, con riferimenti a Shakespeare e Marlowe (1 pagine formato doc)

TEATRO INGLESE

Elementi del dramma: Drama is based on performance; the text is called play and written by playwright or dramatist.

A play requires actors, director, and a audience. The area where the play is performed is called stage and the furniture is called props.
A play is divided in acts and  each act into a number of scenes. Shakespeare’s plays: 5 acts and 5 scenes for act.

Dialogue: The dialogue is the technique of the dramatic text where the characters speak to others characters.
Monologue:  one character speaks without interruption alone or to an other character for a long time.
Soliloquy: a character speaks his thoughts directly to the audience. Elizabethan drama.
Aside:  short comments that a character make for the audience, and which aren’t supposed by other characters

In Britain theatre were born in 16th century, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
Before this, most drama was religious in nature.
All dramatic representation described biblical stories. Initially these scenes were represented inside the church, but then born mobile wagons (pageants), which went around the country. In this period drama move away from representation of biblical stories and passed to tragedy and comedy.

Il teatro inglese dalle origini all'avvento di Shakespeare

TEATRO INGLESE: AUTORI

Tragedy is a story with an unhappy ending, where usually one or more protagonist die.
The classical tragedy were influenced by Aristotle’s idea of ‘unities’: one time, one play, one action. It was preceded by a prologue and included a chorus, which commented the events.
Aristotle: tragedy like a representation of universal truth. ‘catharsis’= purification of audience, thanks to the violent emotions that the audience feels. The genres are divided. Shakespeare will accord comedy and tragedy.
Plato: The representation of violent and irrational emotions, encouraged these emotions in real life.
Nietzsche: Tragedy represented the conflict between the individual and society.

Doctor Faustus in an allegory of humanist revolution and a metaphor to says that men are free from the control of God (humanist idea).
Shakespeare is the greatest dramatis of the Renaissance and paradoxically of the modern period, because he was the only one  who realized a fusion between Middle Age and reinassance.

TEATRO INGLESE 1600

The first permanent Theatre was erected in 1570 By Shoreditch, outsides the city of London and its was called “The Theatre”. The theatres were circular of polygonal and were quite expensive, so theatre was for all the social classes. The most famous Theatre of the Time was The Globe, built in London in 1599, on the south bank of the Thames. Shakespeare’s company (Lord Chamberlain’s Men) performed at “The Theatre”. After the contract run out, after a series of petition and events, they dismantled and moved materials to Bankside and began construction of the “Globe”.
In 1613 the Globe burnt down, but next started a new construction of a new theatre: “The New Globe”, that was completed before Shakespeare’s death and closed down in 1642.

TEATRO INGLESE: MARLOWE

Marlowe. Marlowe born in Canterbury in 1564 and were be murdered by a fight in a Tavern in 1593.
Faustus Is a philosopher-scientist who is willing to sell his soul to the devil to know the secrets of universe.
Marlowe’s characters are generally placed within a recognisable moral framework.
Doctor Faustus’s structure resembles that of a typical medieval morality play and contains elements of Greek tragedy, like chorus. His plays are full of quotation in Latin and Greek.