La Dinastia Tudor ed Elisabetta I: riassunto in inglese (2 pagine formato docx)
ELISABETTA I TUDOR: RIASSUNTO
The Tudors and the Elizabethan Period
The Tudor dynasty began in 1485, when the Wars of the Roses ended and Henry Tudor defeated Richard III becoming king with the name Henry VII.
When he died, he was succeeded by his son Henry VIII. In that period there was the Reformation, so at the beginning Henry VIII sided with the Pope. In fact he wrote a pamphlet to defend the Catholic religion and for this reason the Pope proclaimed him "difensor fidei".
ELISABETTA I RIASSUNTO
Then the king fell in love with Anne Boleyn and asked the Pope, Clement VII, to declare void his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. The Pope rejected his request because Catherine was Charles V's aunt; therefore Henry VIII broke with Rome and, with the help of Parliament, he proclaimed himself Supreme Head of the Church of England. He created the Anglican Church. This new religion wasn't completely different from the other one (Catholicism), in fact it kept the same liturgy, the same hierarchy and some ceremonies as well. He abolished Catholicism, dissolved monasteries, took their valuable possessions, such as gold and books, and distributed them among the middle class. He is also famous for his six wives.
The third of his wives gave him a son, Edward VI, who succeeded Henry VIII but died very young, when he was only 15. The next in line was Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter, who became queen as Mary I. She reintroduced Catholicism into England and she persecuted the Protestants; because of this she was very unpopular and so she was called Bloody Mary.
When Mary died Elizabeth I, Henry and Anne's daughter, became queen. She was one of the most popular sovereigns of England, in fact that period is called Elizabethan Period or Golden Age. Elizabeth reintroduced Anglicanism into England and she also proclaimed herself Governor of the Church of England. The closest heir was Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland. Mary was Catholic, but when a lot of religious conflicts broke out in Scotland, she escaped to England. She was also involved in several plots and intrigues, so Elizabeth had her imprisoned for many years and then she had her executed.