Elisabetta I Tudor: riassunto

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La Dinastia Tudor ed Elisabetta I: riassunto in inglese (2 pagine formato docx)

ELISABETTA I TUDOR: RIASSUNTO

The Tudors and the Elizabethan Period
The Tudor dynasty began in 1485, when the Wars of the Roses ended and Henry Tudor defeated Richard III becoming king with the name Henry VII.

He wanted to strengthen his power, so he prevented the nobles from keeping an army (before they used their armies against the king) to avoid all the civil wars. He adopted a policy of marriages: he married his daughter to the king of Scotland (because England and Scotland were two separate countries at that time) and he married his elder son to the daughter of the king of Spain, Catherine of Aragon. When her husband died she married her brother-in-law, the future Henry VIII.
Henry VII also set up the Royal Navy. At the beginning it was a mercantile fleet, but later it became a war fleet.
When he died, he was succeeded by his son Henry VIII. In that period there was the Reformation, so at the beginning Henry VIII sided with the Pope. In fact he wrote a pamphlet to defend the Catholic religion and for this reason the Pope proclaimed him "difensor fidei".

Età dei Tudor: riassunto

ELISABETTA I RIASSUNTO

Then the king fell in love with Anne Boleyn and asked the Pope, Clement VII, to declare void his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. The Pope rejected his request because Catherine was Charles V's aunt; therefore Henry VIII broke with Rome and, with the help of Parliament, he proclaimed himself Supreme Head of the Church of England. He created the Anglican Church. This new religion wasn't completely different from the other one (Catholicism), in fact it kept the same liturgy, the same hierarchy and some ceremonies as well. He abolished Catholicism, dissolved monasteries, took their valuable possessions, such as gold and books, and distributed them among the middle class. He is also famous for his six wives.
The third of his wives gave him a son, Edward VI, who succeeded Henry VIII but died very young, when he was only 15. The next in line was Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter, who became queen as Mary I. She reintroduced Catholicism into England and she persecuted the Protestants; because of this she was very unpopular and so she was called Bloody Mary.

Tudor e Stuart: riassunto

ELISABETTA I

When Mary died Elizabeth I, Henry and Anne's daughter, became queen. She was one of the most popular sovereigns of England, in fact that period is called Elizabethan Period or Golden Age. Elizabeth reintroduced Anglicanism into England and she also proclaimed herself Governor of the Church of England. The closest heir was Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland. Mary was Catholic, but when a lot of religious conflicts broke out in Scotland, she escaped to England. She was also involved in several plots and intrigues, so Elizabeth had her imprisoned for many years and then she had her executed.