James Joyce in inglese: vita e opere

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Riassunto in inglese della vita e delle opere di James Joyce (3 pagine formato doc)


James Joyce.

The life: One of the best writers who had voiced/expressed the existential crisis of man during the first years of twentieth century is James Joyce. He was born in Dublin in 1882 from John Stanislaus Joyce and Mary Jane Murray. The father was a bad-tempered man and also an alcoholic so his strong personality and his behaviour provided a model for some characters of Joyce’s works. In 1888 James was sent away to a boarding school at Clongowes Wood College which was directed by the Jesuit order and there he received a particular kind of religious education that will be responsible of many features of Joyce’s novels, in particular in the early/first chapters of his “A portrait of the artist as a young man”.
Another important element that we should remember to understand all Joyce’s thoughts and literary production is the influences of the Irish nationalist problem. In fact James, as well as his father, was a great supporter of Charles S. Parnell, the Protestant leader of Irish Home Rule Movement who fought for independence from Britain in the 1880’s and in the 1890’s.

James Joyce: riassunto


But Parnell’s death in 1891 and the fact that the Irish Home Rule Bill was refused from the British parliament made Joyce disappointed and disillusioned about every politic matters. However after attending to the Jesuit school, he went to the University College in Dublin where he took a degree in modern languages in 1902. He left Ireland almost immediately and he moved to Paris where he met expatriate Irish nationalists and some important literary figures.
When he returned in Ireland he started living very precariously, drinking too much but on 16th  June 1904 he knew Nora Barnacle, the woman who managed to save him from his complete self-destruction.
She, like James Joyce himself, was a poor girl who had to escape from his alcoholic father and despite of the differences in their education and nature James and Nora fell in love each other. In the same year (1904) the couple left Dublin and moved to Pula then to Trieste where they stayed until 1905. In 1906 James and Nora moved to Rome where the writer obtained a job as clerk. This occupation was boring and tedious so he decided to come back in Trieste where he taught English and formed a strong friendship with Italo Svevo whose “La coscienza di Zeno” shows clearly Joyce’s literary influences.
There he worked on his early poems “Dubliners” and “A portrait of an artist as a young man”. When in 1914 “Dubliners” was published Joyce began to be known by a lot of European artists, even tough the collection of stories was not so successful on commercial terms.
When the First World War broke out James chose to move to Zurich and, although he remained poor, his reputation as novelists became everyday bigger. In Zurich “Ulysses”, probably his best works was written. He finally moved to Paris where Ulysses was published and there he found the optimal intellectual atmosphere, which led him to write his last novels “Finnegans wake”. With the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 he moved again to Zurich (it is important to remember that The Swiss was always a neutral country) where he died in 1941.


The works.  As regard all the literary production of James Joyce it is important to say that it was all influenced by his autobiographical experiences, so we can say that the subject /matter of Joyce’s novels resulted from close self-investigation through which he could find his way to a comprehension of the world which can be done only from the inside.
In particular we can follow the same development of his personality and of his works.
1) “Dubliners”: Edited in 1914 Dubliners is a collection of fifteen short stories about life in Dublin. Of them Joyce said: “My intention was to write a chapter of the moral history of my country and I chose Dublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the centre of paralysis I have tried to present it to the indifferent public under four of its aspects: childhood, adolescence, maturity and public life. The stories are arranged in this order. I have written it for the most part in a style of scrupulous  meanness”.