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The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood - T. Hardy (in inglese) (0 pagine formato doc)

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood LETTERATURA INGLESE The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The term “Pre-Raphaelite” came into use when young painters criticizing Raphael's Transfiguration, reject the academic taste and classical doctrines, and praised the purity and simplicity of the Italian art of the 13th and 14th centuries.
The movement began, at the end of the 1840s, as an attempt to introduce in visual art, not only the qualities of medieval Italian painting, but a concern with naturalistic accuracy of detail. The merely decorative neo-medievalism, subjectivity, dreaminess, the morbid and languid sensuousness had become its dominant features. The Pre-Raphaelite painters turned their eyes away from the contemporary industrial and urban world, and conceived the creation of beauty as a duty owed to society.
Group of poets: Dante Gabriele Rossetti and his sister Christina and William Morris. Both a poet and a painter, D. G. Rossetti was the strongest personality and organizer of the group, while Morris's figure was outstanding for the incredibly wide range of his interest. Some common features of this movement are: a deliberate simplicity of manner, taste for detail, the peculiarity of sensory detail, often visual or auditory, a characteristic taste in decoration, the recurrence of certain habits or feeling, the use of religious language, the static, unreal atmosphere. Their open revolt against the contemporary values and their search for new sources of inspiration and new ways of expression anticipated the Aesthetic Movement. Aestheticism and Decadence The Aesthetic Movement developed in the universities and intellectual circles in the last decades of the 19th century. Born in France with Gautier, it reflected the sense of frustration and uncertainty of the artist, it's a reaction against the materialism and the restrictive moral code of the bourgeoisie. French artists escaped into aesthetic isolation, into what Gautier defined “Art for Art's Sake”. The bohémien embodied his protest against the monotony and vulgarity of bourgeois life, with an unconventional existence. This doctrine was imported in England by Whistler, an American painter. Pater is regarded as the theorist of the Aesthetic Movement in England. He rejected religious faith and said that art was the only means to stop time, the only certainty. Life should be lived in the spirit of art “as work of art”. the task of the artist was to feel sensations. Art had no reference to life, it had nothing to do with morality. Pater's work had a deep influence on the poets and writers of the 1890s, especially Oscar Wilde. Features of decadent artists: excessive attention to the self, hedonistic and sensuous attitude, perversity in subject matter, disenchantment with contemporary society, evocative use of language. Decadence must be seen as a European movement. Rimbaud, Verlain, Mallarmé, Laforgue, influenced by Baudelaire. Model for Wilde's dandy. The main represent