contesto storico del periodo che va dalla "Restoration" all'Augustan Age. Inoltre approfondimento di letteratura con descrizione della novella e le sue caratteristiche, più tutti i tipi di novella. Riassunto in lingua inglese: Literature and features of Restoration and Augustan age (11 pagine formato doc)
RESTORATION AND AUGUSTAN AGE: LITERATURE AND FEATURES
The Restoration (1660 – 1714).The Restoration marked the end of the period of fanaticism belonged to the Stuart House. The first protagonist was Charles II that was considered a very immoral king because he represented all the bad behaviours and reflected them in his court. He came back in England after a long period of exile in France where he knew the policy of Luis XIV and his absolute power.
In the first period of his monarchy there was the bubonic plague, in the second there was a great fire that destroyed London in 1666 and it was rebuilt by Christopher Wren (an important architect of the age). The puritans believed that these two catastrophes were caused by the immorality of the king as a divine punishment.
THE RESTORATION OF THE MONARCHY
In 1673 the convention of parliament named the king “Cavalier Parliament” and imposed him to sign the Text Act that didn’t give him the opportunity to introduce Catholics in public offices.
In this period the Parliament was divided into Whigs and Tories. The former derived their name from cattle (bestiame) drivers and they were the descendants of the Parliamentarians; they didn’t believe in the absolute power of the king and of the Church and thought they had the right to remove the king if it was proved his misgovernment (malgoverno). The Tories instead of derived their name from the Irish name “tory” that translated means “outlaw”, they were the descendants of the Royalists and supported the cause of the Church of England, the crown and the landed gentlemen. They held (sostenevano) the view that kings ruled by divine right, which is the will of God.
AUGUSTAN AGE LITERATURE
When Charles II died, his brother James II took his place, he was so immoral as him, and he wanted to impose the Catholicism in England again. He changed the rights of the Church and of the state, and put himself against Tories and Whigs. But his son in law (genero) William of Orange, that saw his land in danger, decided to move to London in 1688 helped by the Tories and the Whigs and put in exile the king and his family without firing a single shot. He was named king of England and became William III. He with his wife Mary II created a combination between Church, Parliament and Crown and there was a important change in the politic structure in fact the crown wasn’t hereditary but was a choice of Parliament; his power was established by the Bill of Rights of 1639 (in this document the king cannot impose taxes, martial law in peace time o keep an army without the consent of the Parliament).
AUGUSTAN AGE NOVEL
In this period there was another important document: the Toleration Act that gave all the power to the Protestants but the Catholics were no more persecuted. The reign of William III and Mary II was a period of economic progress until he was succeeded by his sister in law (cognata), Anne. She was a obstinate woman, her reign was marked by English intervention against the France in the war of Spanish Succession. It ended with the signing of the Treaties of Utrecht in which England was recognized (riconosciuta) as the biggest navy fleet of the nations.