Testo in inglese copia di parte della magna charta. (file.doc, 1 pag) (0 pagine formato doc)
On 15/6/1215 Barons and merchants forced John ( the brother and successor of Richard The lionheart) to sign The Magna Carta (or great charter): a fondamental document for the constitution of monarchy Magna charta (Great Charter) First, we have granted to God, and by this present charter have confirmed for us and our heirs in perpetuity, that the English church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished and its liberties unimpaired… To all FREE MEN of our kingdom we have also granted, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs, of us and ours heirs: 12.No scutage or aid may be lieved in our kingdom without general consent, unless it is for the ransom of our person, to make our eldest son a knight, on to marry our eldest daughter. For these purposes only a reasonable aid may be lieved. Aids from the city of London are to be treated similarly 13.The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and free customs, both by land and by water. We also will and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall enjoy all their liberties and free customs. 14.To obtain the general consent for the assessment of an aid - except in the three cases specified above - or a scutage, we will cause the Archbishop, bishops, abbots, earls, and greater barons to be summoned individually by letter. To those who hold lands directly of us we will cause a general summons to be issued, throught the sheriffs and other officials, to come together on a fixed day (of which at least forty days notice shall be given) and at a fixed place. Judicial system 38.In future no official shall place a man on trial upon his own unsupported statement without producing credible witnesses to the truth of it. 39. No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any other way, nor will proceed with force against him, or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgement of his equals or by the law of the land ( Commonland ). Given by our hand in the meadow that is called Runnymede, between Windsor and Staines, on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of our reign. The boiling Lake They looked down at the lake, felt how its cheats rose up, watched the waves blood-stined swirling. Their battle horns sounded, them sounded again. Then they set down thwir weapons. They could see the water crowling with snakes, fantastic serpents swimming in the boiling lake, and sea beasts lying on the rocks. The kind that infest the ocean in the early down, often ending sam-ships. Journey with teirs wild jaws.