Definizioni in inglese dei principali termini della biologia.(3 pag. formato word)
(0 pagine formato doc)
DEFINITIONS THAT WILL MAKE YOUR LIFE EASIER DEFINITIONS THAT WILL MAKE YOUR LIFE EASIER!!! CELL THEORY: a) The cell is the fundamental unit of life.
b) All living things are made of cells. c) All cells come from cells. SOMATIC CELLS: Vegetative cells which don't produce gametes. Somatic cells are produced from preexisting cells through mitosis, in which the number of chromosomes per cell remains constant. DIPLOID CELL: A cell which contains a pair of homologous chromosomes. APLOID CELL: A cell which has one copy of each gene, and therefore has only one copy of each chromosome. GERM CELLS: Cells which create haploid gametes.
GAMETE: A haploid sex cell. MEIOSIS: Cell division found in eukaryotic organisms. In this process, a haploid cell divides twice in order to produce four haploid cells. MITOSIS: A type of nuclear division in which somatic cells are produced. Equational division. MEMBRANE: The "outer covering" of a cell, and it's organelles. All membranes have two layers and are therefore called "bilayers." CYTOPLASM: The substance contained within the plasma membrane of the cell. The region in which translation takes place. ORGANELLE: The membrane bound parts of a cell. RIBOSOME: A cellular component composed of proteins and another class of RNA (rRNA). ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: The area where most proteins and lipids synthesize. A "hallway" between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. ENZYME: An organic catalyst. DNA: Deoxyribose nucleic acid. Here's a little something about the structure of DNA and the replication of DNA. GENE: An inhereted set of instructions for making proteins. ALLELE: A copy of each gene. There are two alleles for each gene, one maternal copy and one paternal copy. CODON: A sequence of three nitrogenous bases. ANTICODON: The sequence of three bases (a codon), found in tRNA, which is complementary to the three bases of mRNA. mRNA: Messenger RNA. A type of RNA which transports the information about the sequence of the amino acids in the protein to be manufactured, from the nucleus to the ribosomes. tRNA: Transfer RNA. tRNA binds to a specific amino acid and has an anticodon on one end. The anticodon bears a set of three bases which are complementary to the mRNA codon for that particular amino acid. It carries its amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis. rRNA: Ribisomal RNA. A type of RNA which combines with proteins to form ribisomes. Aids in translation. DELETION: The processin which nucleotide pairs are removed from a gene. BENIGN: Cancer which remains confined to its original location. CANCER: Uncontrolled cell growth. CARCINOGENS: Causes of cancer. CARCINOMA: Cancers which arise from the skin. They constitute 90% of all cancers. CYTOTOXIC T CELLS: "Cancer fighters" produced by the immune system to search for and destroy canceroud cells. DIPEPTIDE: A chain comprised of two amino acids which are bound by a peptide bond. EVOLUTION: Inhereted change within a population over time, directed by natural selection acting upon