DEFOE RICHARDSON AND FIELDING
His father wanted a religious career for him, but he began working an apprentice.
Defoe suffered two bankruptcies. He started to write in Whig papers; like journalist his greatest achievement was The Review.
He became famous, but in the reign of Queen Anne he was arrested, tried and imprisoned.
Then he denied his Whigs ideals, and when was sixty began to write novel which were very successful. In 1719 he published hid first novel, Robinson Crusoe, in the 1722 he published Moll Flanders, his last novel was Roxana.
So he could afford a comfortable standard of life, but he dead in 1731.
Structure of the novel. Defoe's long narrative are autobiographices pretend to be true stories through the autobiographical details and memories provided by the protagonist. The structure of the novel is characterized by series of episodes and adventures held togheter by the unifying presence of a single hero.
DIFFERENZE TRA DEFOE RICHARDSON AND FIELDING
The lack of coherent plot is due to the fact that Defor neither planned nor revised his work. Defoe’s method of retrospective first- person narration, and the autor’s point of view mainly coincides whit the main characters.
Characterisation. The character usually appear in physically or socially isolation. Defoe is regarded like father of English novel because he used a narrative technique was original and became the basis for the development of the realistic novel.
Robinson Crusoe. The plot. Robinson Crusoe was born in New York in 1632, at the age of nineteen he leave his home and decided to travel around the world. His first voyage was in Guinea, and then he back to England. In his second voyage he was captured by Moorish pirates but he managed to escape and is rescue of Portuguese ship and brought to Brazil. The third voyage was in Africa and he is shipwrecked on a desert island where he will remain for 28 years. He writes a diary. After 20 years of solitude he find a human footprint, there was cannibal in the island. So Robinson decides to attack them, but they escape. Robinson met one of them and called him Friday. He teaches English and reading the Bible. So together attack a cannibal and imprisoned two of them, one is Friday’s father. The novel ends with Robinson that return to England and discovered that he was rich.
THE 18TH CENTURY NOVEL CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES
The new middle class hero. The new hero belong to the middle class.
The island. The island is the ideal place to prove his qualities, to demonstrate that he deserved to be saved by God’s providence. On the Island Robinson organized a sort of primitive empire.
The individual and society. The society that Robinson created on the island is not an alternative to English one, but it can be read as an exaltation of 18th century of England and its ideal of mobility, material productiveness and individualism.
The style. Defoe concentrates his description on the primary qualities of object, especially solidity, extension and number and on the secondary ones like color, texture and flavors. The language is simple and he used the first person narration.
THE RISE OF THE NOVEL IN 18TH CENTURY ENGLAND
Samuel Richardson. Richardson and the epistolary vogue
Samuel Richardson was born in Derbyshire in 1689 of a Puritan family. In 1706 he was apprenticed to a printer. When he was fifty he write a volume of model letter to be used on various occasion. While working on this volume he had a idea of using the technique of epistolary to tell a story. So he started writing Pamela, or the virtue rewarded, Clarissa and Sir Charles Grandison. He was married two times and had twelve son. He died in 1761.
The moralising aim. All is novel are set in a realistic domestic middle class and are the dramatic representation of ethics preached like commons sense, good manners and modesty. Reflect the puritan’s middle class scheme of reward for virtue, and punishment for sins. He avoided his novel on a single action, not in episody.