Il contesto storico del Romanticismo, legami con la Rivoluzione Francese e conseguenze, riforme in Inghilterra. Romanticismo e neoclassicismo a confronto, Romanticismo in Inghilterra (con riferimenti allo Sturm und Drang) e il poeta romantico. Riassunto sul Romanticismo inglese (7 pagine formato pdf)
ENGLISH ROMANTICISM: RIASSUNTO
ROMANTICISM: 1780 – 1830
To understand the Romantic poet we have to underline some events.
ENGLAND 1760 to 1820, Rein of George III
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1760 to 1840) - It was a period of great economy, England was the richest country of Europe due to the industrial revolution that had positive effects: there were new techniques (new materials as iron and steel, new energy sources as the steam engine, the petroleum and the electricity) and new machineries, and as a consequence the ways of transport and communication increased.
The job purposed changed. One of the cons is the passage from an agricultural society to an industrial one. People moved to Cities to look for a job. To Romantic poets, the nature is essential because before there was a pantheistic vision of it (God was everywhere).
ENGLISH ROMANTICISM SUMMARY
Others cons are the unemployment: lots of people risked their jobs and the large quantity of people that lived in the city increased the tax of alcoholism and illness. (cfr London by Blake). Workers lived in overcrowded slums without any sanitation. People, most of all women and children were exploited and so in 1830 a new political movement started as a criticism of industrialism and capitalism called Socialism.
By that moment children began to be considered as real human being: their rights were recognized and they were no more exploited. Women were not free, they worked a lot and were subject of discrimination. The elementary education was thought to be superfluous, so they were not educated. At the end of the Century women began to demand emancipation and equal rights and a great pioneer in this field was Mary Wollstonecraft.
ENGLISH ROMANTICISM CHARACTERISTICS
MOTHERLAND VS COLONIES: AMERICA. In this period there was the independence that brought England to a change. It was a period of tranquility and of great control over the seas. The American colonies were very rich and well populated; and so, originally, the relationship between the Colonies and the Motherland was positive. All changed when England imposed a strict control and a governor over the colonies. Colonies were not represented in British Parliament and England imposed a taxation because they wanted the Colonies to contribute to the expenses (army). The Colonies refused to pay and they cloned a slogan: “No taxation without Representation!”.