Il sistema politico britannico, i diversi partiti politici e loro funzioni, la struttura del Parlamento (4 pagine formato doc)
Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch had real power but gradually, over the centuries, more and more of this power has been transferred to parliament.
In 1649 King Charles I was executed and the country became a republic for 11 years. The monarchy was then restored but parliament had become the supreme authority. At first only comparatively rich people were represented in parliament but, during the 19th century, the right to vote was gradually extended to all men and then, in 1928, to women too. Britain does not have a written constitution. The division of power is based on laws and traditions which have developed over the centuries.
The Queen is the head of state and a symbol of national unity but she has no control over the policies of the government.
She officially appoints the ministers of “Her Majesty’s Government” but, in fact, they have been chosen by the Prime Minister.
Parliament is responsible for making the laws of the country and for giving authority to the decisions of the government. A government cannot continue in power if parliament votes against it. The main institution of parliament is the House of Commons, which has 659 members. These MPs (Members of Parliament) are elected in the following way: Britain is divided into 659 constituencies, each with about 90,000 people. In each constituency the different political parties propose their candidates. The people vote and the candidate who wins most votes becomes the MP.
In the House of Commons the MPs discuss the problems of the country , criticize or support the actions of the government and decide on new laws. A proposal for new legislation (called a “bill”) must be approved by a majority of MPs before it becomes a law.
There is also a second institution in parliament , the House of Lords, which has about 1,200 members. They are not elected by the people. Some of them are hereditary peers (members of