Social and political changes in Britain, The First World War, The Spanish civil war, The Second World War, War on civilians, The Irish Question, Ireland, The dominions, India, Spirit of rapture, A mass society, New views of human nature, perception and belief, Changing role of writer and Cosmopolitans and exiles. Riassunto in inglese dell'età moderna (3 pagine formato doc)
MODERN AGE RIASSUNTO
Modern Age. Social and political changes in Britain - During the first years of the 20th century the process of democratization begun in the previous century continued, in fact old age pensions, National Health Insurance and right of Trade Unions to strike were introduced, but also there were the “Education Act” of 1902, that guaranteed secondary education; the “Reform Bill" of 1918, that introduced total male suffrage, followed by the female suffrage in 1928. These changes were realized thanks to the pressure from the new working-class electorate. The British Labour Party, formed in 1900, won fifty seats in Parliament with the general election of 1906 and in 1924 John R.Macdonald formed the first Labour Government of the 20th century, marking the Liberal Party's decline.After the Conservative Government of W.Churchill, that led the nation to victory in the Second World War, the Labour Party came to power winning the first post-war election in 1945 and this, with a programme based on social security and a national health service, marked the birth of the Welfare State.
THE MODERN AGE RIASSUNTO IN INLGESE: THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The First World War - In 1914 a series of alliances and treaties between countries around the globe forced many of them into a conflict, remembered like "The Great War". This war was different from previous ones because of many innovations introduced like tanks, gas, submarines and military aircraft, and it was a war of position, because the armies fought in trenches. In 1917, after the Bolscevik Revolution, Russia left the conflict, however the German submarines' attacks on USA merchant ships, directed in Britain and in France, pushed America into the war in 1917. This conflict caused a lot of death, shook the minds of both the fighters and destroyed the last traced of the Victorian optimism.
MODERN AGE LITERATURE
The Spanish civil war - In 1931 Spain became a Republic and in 1936 the left-wing won the general election, so an army headed by the General Francisco Franco rebelled and marched on Madrid, where he was stopped by armed factories workers. These two groups were helped by many European countries: fascist Italy and nazi Germany supported the military rebels, while Russia defended the republican forces and Britain opted for non intervention. However many British man, in particular intellectuals and writers, visited Spain and some of them fought for the republican side.
THE MODERN AGE LETTERATURA INGLESE
The Second World War - The League of Nations stood to watch while Germany rearmed herself. In fact America resumed its insular position and many British politicians preferred the idea of a moderate fascist Germany rather than an alliance with the communist Russia, so they chose the policy of appeasement and gave freedom of action to Hitler. Later, the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939, allowed the Fuhrer to go on with his plan to annex Poland without fear of attack from the Soviet Union, while Britain signed the “Mutual Assistance Treaty” with Poland and so, when Hitler attacked it, Britain declared war to Germany.