Great Britain history

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Note schematiche in lingua inglese sulla storia della Gran Bretagna: the invasions, the middle ages and the renaissance, the Tudors, the industrial revolution, Queen Victoria (2 pagine formato doc)

The Celts migrated to Britain from north-west Germany between 2000 and 1200 BC.

The Celts were organised in tribes, lived in villages and were mainly farmers.

The Romans firs came to Britain under Julius Caesar in 55 BC, but extensive roman colonisation of Britain took place almost one hundred years later under Emperor Claudius in 43 AD.

The Romans settled in the south and central parts of the island.

In 122 AD they built a 120 km long wall, called Hadrian's Wall, in honour of Emperor Hadrian, to defend their population from the Celtic tribes.


When the roman legions left Britain in 454 AD, barbarian tribes invaded the country: the Angles, Saxons and Jutes came from Germanic territories while the Vikings came from Scandinavia.

Finally, in 1066 William, Duke of Normandy, crossed the English Channel, defeated Harold, the Saxon King, at the Battle of Hastings, and became king with the name of William I or William the conqueror.

During the middle Ages, in England, the King assumed absolute power.


Many barons rebelled in June 1215 against the Crown and forced King John Lackland to sign a peace treaty accepting their reforms, the Magna Carta,

The Magna Carta limited royal powers, defined feudal obligations between the King and the barons, and guaranteed a number of rights.

The Hundred Years' War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453.

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) (Guerra delle due Rose) were a series of civil wars fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. This victory brought the Tudor dynasty to the English throne. Both houses were branches of the Plantagenet royal house, tracing descent from King Edward III.

The most important representatives of the Tudors were Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.