History (XVII-XVIII secolo)

Appunto inviato da verardo88

Storia in scritta in lingua inglese. Da Charles I a Anne Stuart; da : the Seven Years’ War a George Washington . (1 pagine formato doc)

When Charles I succeeded his father James I in 1625, the question as to who, between King and Parliament, should hold the cont When Charles I succeeded his father James I in 1625, the question as to who, between King and Parliament, should hold the control of power was still unsettled.
The king became so involved in the war with Spain and in expeditions to France that Parliament produced the Petition of Rights which denied the king the right to impose taxes without Parliament's consent and to imprison a freeman without trial. Charles dissolved the Parliament and, for some years, governed without it. In 1640 the King had to summon Parliament again in order to obtain money to suppress a religious rebellion in Scotland.
The Parliament granted the money but also deleted the prerogative which had permitted the King to rule without Parliament. When a rebellion exploded in Catholic Ireland, king was asked to give up the command of the army. He refused and the Civil War broke out in 1642: the forces were divided into Royalists or Cavaliers and Roundheads, the supporters of Parliament. A member of Parliament, Oliver Cromwell, proved a brilliant leader in raising and training cavalry composed of puritan men. With the reorganization of the Army, Parliament acquired advantage on the Stuart monarchy: the King was captured, tried and legally murdered. Monarchy was abolished and the country was ruled as a republic, known by the name of Commonwealth. Cromwell tried to rule as a constitutional statesman but soon the Parliament was dissolved and he became a sort of dictator. When he died his son proved unable to success the father and Charles II, Charles I'son was called back from France where he was fled during Cromwell's govern. Charles II was a very popular King and his reign marked the end of an age of fanaticism. In 1673 Parliament forced Charles II to accept a Test Act which prevented any Catholic from holding public office. Fear of Charles's interest in Catholic Church resulted in the first political parties in Britain, the Whig and the Tories. The firsts thought they had the right to remove the King if it was proved he had misgoverned his people. When became King the Catholic James, the English were faced with the view of a line of Catholic royals. Leaders of both Whig and Tories invited William of Orange, King's son-in-law, to come over with an army. James was forced to flee and William II became King. This was the so called Glorious revolution, because no blood was shed, apart from the Scottish blood. In 1689 the Bill of Rights reduces the powers of the King. When William died, he was succeeded by Anne Stuart. Her reign was marked by England's intervention in the war of the Spanish Succession against France. Britain won and obtained from Spain the monopoly of the slave trade with South America. In the meanwhile Scotland joined England. When the last Stuart died, became King George of Hanover, who could speak no English. In this period the colonial empir