Riassunto del periodo storico e biografia di Samuel Johnson (2 pagine formato doc)
THE AGE OF TRANSITION IN ENGLISH LITERATURE
History.George III succeeded his grandfather in 1760; he could speak English so he could do whatever he wanted. The most important events occurred during his reign were: the American revolution: that was due to the distance from the mother country and to the fact that Americans were not represented in parliament (their slogan was: no taxes without representation). England could not accept this and war broke out in 1775, George Washington was made commander in chief of the American army. On July 4, 1776, representatives of the colonies met in Philadelphia and made the Declaration of independence that affirmed the natural right of people to choose their own system of government. The colonies were helped by France and the English were defeated, so they have to acknowledge the independence of the United Stated of America. the French revolution: England remained neutral during its first stage but after the execution of Louis XVI the English realized that it was necessary to oppose the born of the French hegemony in Europe.
TRANSITION PERIOD OF ENGLISH LITERATURE
The industrial and agricultural revolutions: English economical life was influenced by the invention of machine (steam engine for example) which transformed commercial production and marked the beginning of the industrial era. In agriculture new scientific techniques were applied to farming. Both the revolutions required financial support, so people whit money to invest became very important and there was a social division between the class with capital and labour. At first they worked in inhuman conditions, in time their situation slowly improved owing to the economic theory of “laissez-faire”, according to which the state was not to interfere with economic activity.
ROMANTIC AGE IN ENGLISH LITERATURE
Social background. During the years of revolutions started a period of transition characterized by the decline of classical values and the awakening of romantic ideals. The first industrial revolution had its roots in the improvements and innovations of previous centuries: the developments in agricultural techniques the passing of the Enclosure Acts which permitted landowners to fence off their holdings but damaged the landless poor and forced some small freeholders to migrate to the towns the development of trade and commerce the growth in population which brought fresh labour to industry the improved conditions in transport and communication the scientific progress which had paved the way of mechanization The invention of the steam engine, spinning jenny and weaving machines introduced the methods of factory production but destroyed the old domestic system.