Coffee houses: riassunto

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english society in the 18th century, the coffee-houses and the rise of Journalism (1 pagine formato doc)

COFFEE HOUSESS RIASSUNTO - English society in the 18th century: The expansion of the middle-class, which had begun in the previous century continued throughout the 18th century and strongly influenced the social life of the Augustan Age.

The wealthy merchants, who controlled the most productive trades, owned the mines and manufacturing factories, and supported Sir Robert Walpole in politics, often bought large estates to gain prestige and enable their children to marry into the aristocracy. The artisans and craftsmen filled the gap between the upper class and the poor.
They worked long hours, usually as apprentices, for a very low wage.

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AUGUSTAN AGE COFFEE HOUSES: RIASSUNTO - Below them was the mass of the urban population who had no political rights and lived in terrible scurvy and typhus affected the poorest areas and it has been estimated that fifty-one per cent of the children in London died before they reached the age of five. Those who survived were hired as apprentices by the parishes from the age of seven. Many of them became chimney-sweepers. For adult people the parishes built workhouses, where they were maintained at public expense and hired out to factory owners. It is not surprising that many took to drinking gin and that organised crime grew among the unemployed.

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COFFEE HOUSES  AND JOURNALISM: RIASSUNTO - Life in the countryside was deeply affected by the enclosure system. On the one hand, it caused the misery of a great many labourers who, dispossessed of the communal open fields, were to became the urban proletariat. On the other hand, it led to the improvement of farming methods and to the transformation of a dreary landscape into a place of fertility and prosperity. The coffee-houses One of the most significant traits of LondonÂ’s social life were the coffee-houses. Under the Commonwealth a number of coffee-houses had been opened: they were associated with news and gossip and provided entertainment. Leggi anche Augustan age, appunti