Il romanticismo nella letteratura inglese, William Blake e descrizione delle sue poesie (The lamb, The tyger, London) (11 pagine formato doc)
ROMANTIC AGE E WILLIAM BLAKE
The age of revolutions - Great Revolutions characterized the second half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century:
• the American Revolution with the Declaration of American Independence in 1776,
• the Industrial Revolution,
• the French Revolution.
These events affected the cultural and literary aspects of life.
1776 the Declaration of American Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and it was signed in Philadelphia. For the first time in history it was stated (affermare) that every person has “a right to freedom and pursuit (conseguimento) of happiness”. In 1787 George Washington became the first president of the USA.
1789 the French Revolution broke out.(scoppiò) Its motto was “liberty, equality and fraternity”, this represented a message of optimism.
England was isolated and far from the big revolutions that characterized Europe in this period (the end of the 18th century). However the message of the French Revolution, liberty, freedom and equality influenced English intellectuals and poets conveying to their works a sense of optimism and faith (fede) in the revolutionary power of the people. Therefore when the regime of Terror was established, a general feeling of disillusionment pervaded their works.
• The first generation of Romantic poets shared the feeling of faith in the ideals of the French Revolution.
• The second generation of Romantic poets were disillusioned.
THE ROMANTIC AGE SUMMARY
1760 – 1820: it started with the Agrarian Revolution (enclosure system). There were many inventions: the power loom, the steam engine, and an improved communications and transport infrastructure.
Emotion versus reason
In the second half of the Augustan Age there were already signs that artists were tiring (stanchi) of classical models. They began to write about mysterious and medieval settings. There was a growing (crescente) interest in feeling as opposed to thinking, a dominance of emotions and desire over reason, a strong sense of melancholy. This new sensibility appealed (faceva appello) to the heart and it claimed (reclama) for the supremacy of feelings and emotions. These new interests were in opposition with reason.
There was also a search for new literary models. In this period writers began to rediscover the art and popular tradition of the Middle Ages, to love eastern settings, supernatural events, mystery and emotion.
This new sensibility contained elements of introspection, nostalgia, emotionalism, individualism and led to (portare a) a new way of considering man in the Universe.
Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement originated in late 18th century in Western Europe.
Nature was no longer seen as something that man could rule by reason but as a real living being. Reason is declared a failure as a means, an instrument to explain reality.
ROMANTIC AGE LITERATURE
Romanticism stressed the importance of nature in art and language and the experience of the sublime through a connection with nature. It stressed strong emotion and individual imagination.
Greater importance is given to the senses (one of the five powers, hearing, taste, sight, smell and touch, by which a person or an animal feels or notices)
Romanticism created the idea of childhood as a time of innocence, imagination, play, and pleasure children were associated with the idea of an uncorrupted natural world.
The individual gained a key role in this period. The Romantics placed emphasis on the significance of the individual. They exalted the figures of the outcast, the rebel, the hero.
Romanticism was also seen as a reaction against (the rising tide, alta marea) the rise of the industrialism.