The Augustan Age, the Hanoverians, the Augustan literature, Daniel Defoe, Defoe novel, Robinson Crusoe, Swift, Gullivers Travels. Riassunto dettagliato in inglese del periodo dell'età augustea (2 pagine formato doc)
THE AUGUSTAN AGE RIASSUNTO
The augustan age: riassunto di letteratura inglese. The Augustan Age. The age of the 18th century was called in various ways: the Augustan Age because there were a stable government, an empire and a materialistic society, like the Roman Empire of Augustus, and there was a return to classicism; the age of reason, for the birth of Natural philosophy and because it was a tecnological age in agriculture and industry, that leads to the industrial revolution. There was the age of harmony, balance, order and reason.It was called also the golden age, for the power and wealth of the England. Trade and war expanded the geographical borders.
The Hanoverians: After the Queen Anne Stuart’s death, she was succeeded by the Hanoverians dynasty, with George I, that was German. He didn’t spoke English and wasn’t loved by the people. This period was characterized by political stability and the parliament was divided into two parties: the Whigs, that supported the Parliament’s power, and the Tories, that supported the monarchy. Il primo ministro fu Robert Walpole, that managed to keep England out of foreign conflicts.
THE AUGUSTAN AGE LITERATURE
The Augustan literature: in this period in England was born the journalism and the novel:
Journalism: in 1711 Steele and Addison created the first newspapers, The Tatler and The Spectator, that gave information about daily life, entertainment and gossip for the middle class, that was interested to commercial information for their business. When there began to be marriages between nobles and middle classes, the newspapers gave information on how to behave in society, to educate the middle class. The Italian newspapers, as "L’osservatore veneziano” and "Il Caffè”, used the English model.
COFFEE HOUSES: AUGUSTAN AGE
Novel: the 18th novel was called the middle class novel, because is the spokesman of the middle-class ideals (as mobility, productivity and individualism), the relistic novel, because it represents the real life and fiction and because often it tells an invented story, but in a way that seems true. The story follows the chronological sequence of events and descriptions are accurate to create realism. The story is told in 1st or 3rd person. The novel had to contain the problem of character, his experiences and lessons for others. Factors that influenced the development of the novel were the intellectual and economic progress, the increasing of the reading public, a major degree of literacy and the birth of the lending circulating libraries.
The middle-class was interested in periodicals and in books for pratical information, account of crimes and stories about pirates or thieves. In this period were born the coffee houses, that became cultural centers where cultural and political ideas circulating.
ETA' AUGUSTEA INGLESE: DANIEL DEFOE
Daniel Defoe: Daniel Defoe was born in 1660 into a family of Dissenters, that refused the authority of the Church of England. He studied in Newington Green practical subject, as modern languages, economics and geography. After then, he became journalist and published “The Review” and wrote various pamphlets but, during the reign of Queen Anne, that didn’t like his critical attitude, he was arrested and he made three appearances in the pillory, that were turned into triumph when some of his friends threw him flowers instead of rocks or rotten eggs. After, he denied his Whig ideas and became a secret agent for the new government. In 1719, at the age of sixty, he published his first novel, “Robinson Crusoe”. Defoe died in 1731.
THE AUGUSTAN AGE: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL: DEFOE E ROBINSON CRUSOE
Defoe’s novel: Defoe’s novels were fictional biographies that pretended to be true stories thanks the biographical details and documentary style. The structure of the novels is characterized by a series of episodes and adventures. The hero is a “flat” character, a person that doesn’t change his ideas in the course of the novel.
Robinson Crusoe: In writing “Robinson Crusoe”, Defoe was inspired by the story of the sailor Alexander Selrick that survived for 5 years on a desert island. Robinson is a middle-class man, that at the age of 19, leaves his family to look for adventures and fortune and become a planter in Brazil. During a voyage to get some slaves, he’s shipwrecked on a desert island where he remains for 28 years.