Breve riassunto in lingua inglese sui Normanni: le riforme, il rapporto tra Stato e Chiesa e le guerre (2 pagine formato doc)
I NORMANNI: RIASSUNTO
The Normans.In 1066 William, duke of Normandy, led the Normans across the English Channel to fight to Anglo-Saxon army under King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. Harold’s army was defeated and Harold was killed. The Normans introduced the French language and hierarchical feudal system. This was a pyramidal system by which the king distributed territories to his barons, that gave their land to knights. Under then there were vassals and finally there were peasants: they were divided in villains and serfs.
The Domesday Book is a historical document regarding the social structure of England just often the Norman conquest. It can be defined the first census in England.
I NORMANNI: RIASSUNTO IN INGLESE
A time of reform. Henry II, the first Plantagenet king created Common Law, based on custom and comparison with previous cases.
In 1215 the barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. It stipulated that the king could not claim high taxes without the approval of a council and no free man could be arrested without fair trial. This document limits the power of king.
Church and State
The Church had a lot of influence in affairs of State for this reason the relationship between Church and State was not easy, as can be seen in the case of Thomas Becket, that was made Archbishop of Canterbury by King Henry II. The king wanted to control the power of the Church for that he gave the job to Thomas Becket. But he refused to support his reform bill, The Constitutions of Clarendon, that was made to give the king more authority. For this Becket was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral. In this period the Church accumulated a lot of lands and money even if it was in conflict with principles of Christian life. So the Loleardy reform movement was born. His leader was John Wycliffe; his aim was removing most of the Church’s richness, to use it for charitable actions.
I NORMANNI IN INGHILTERRA: RIASSUNTO
The fortunes of war. The Norman Conquest united England with Normandy in the north of France. But there were continual disputes with French for possession of land and sovereignty known as the Hundred Years’ War.
In 1415 Henry V led England to victory against the French at the Battle of Agincourt but French defeated English at the Battle of Castillon. When the Hundred Tears’ War finished, a conflict broke out between Lancaster and York. This conflict became a civil war between the rival families lasted 30 years, called the War of the Roses because the emblem of families was a rose.