Tema in lingua inglese sulla rivoluzione scientifica, Galileo Galilei, Newton, Bacone e Keplero (2 pagine formato doc)
RIVOLUZIONE INDUSTRIALE: TEMA
The Scientific Revolution is a period comprised between the second half of the 500( heliocentric theory of the universe) and the end of the ‘600 ( laws of Newton) that saw the birth of a new conception of the nature and sciences (philosophy, chemistry, mathematics, physics, astronomy, and politics), thanks to the use of a new method called research the scientific method.
It developed in Europe after the new ideas of Humanism and Renaissance In addition to that there was the contribution of the laicism of culture, and the study of nature that was separated from religion.
Finally a big help for the revolution was given by the invention of print.
RIVOLUZIONE INDUSTRIALE FILOSOFIA
The Scientific Revolution began with the Astronomical Revolution.
In the past , it was believed that the earth was at the center of the universe (geocentrism), and that the universe was limited by fixed stars and the Primum Mobile; for this reason it was thought to be ended. Copernicus, instead reaches the conviction of a heliocentric system, with the Sun at the centre and all the other planets revolving around it (including the Earth).
Later, Keplero with its three laws, discovered that the planets follow elliptic (not circular)orbits around the Sun.
The first modern scientist was Galileo Galilei who based his survey on the direct experience and the verification through experiments. He built the telescope, by the use of this instrument he confirmed the Copernicus and Keplero’s had done which caused the jail to him.
The difficult relationship between science and religion emerged.
Moreover Galilei indicated the points of the experimental method. It began the search of a new method that linked all sciences and verified all theories. Francisco Bacone was against the prejudices and understood the research of the truth was in studying nature. Instead Cartesio claimed that the survey of the nature was based on mathematic.
The scientific method is a system adopted for the first time from Galileo and changed from Bacone in order to arrive to one universal acquaintance and sure.
This method proceeds from the particular to the universal in fact it must be based on:
A) The observation of natural phenomena;
B) The making of hypotheses, that is the description of what has been observed;
C) The prediction based on the hypotheses;
D) The test of predictions by experiments;
E) The clarification of the theory concerning the phenomenon
This new type of the vision of science wasn’t accepted in fact both the Common people and then the church didn’t accept this theory.
The common people were against because they saw with their own eyes that was the sun moved around the earth and not the contrary.
The Church was contrary because heliocentric system went against the old interpretation of the Bible, and to affirm this theory the scientist fought a historical battle against the church.
RIVOLUZIONE SCIENTIFICA: DEFINIZIONE
England had a singular position, in fact the new rationalistic spirit and science were not seen as a challenge to religion as in Europe, but it was seen as a means for a better understanding of the order and harmony of a Go-created universe.
One of the most important England interpreters was Bacone that elaborated his own method moving from the accurate observation of particular phenomena in nature to ascertain more general truth told about the IDOLAS.
In the politic field Hobbes and Locke started to write works about a particular type of state.
The focal point of the development of the new philosophy was London with Royal Society that was founded with Charles II’ s patronage.