Tesina in inglese sulle innovazioni dell'età moderna, con una breve descrizione di Thomas Eliot e "The waste land" (3 pagine formato doc)
THE MODERN AGE AND THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT: TESINA
The innovations of the new century.The 20th century was characterized by many innovations and new theories which led believe that the reason and the science could finally bring happiness to human beings. But when in 1914 and in 1939 two World Wars broke out, all certitudes felt and prosperity and stability became a privilege for high classes only. The Imperial hegemony and the white race superiority were the results of the dissolution of the English Empire in the free associations of Commonwealth.
The invention of the atomic bomb, of the psychology and of new communications and faster means of transport changed the world forever.
Of this crucial period were the fundamental discovers of some scientists as Sigmund Freud, Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein and the theories of the philosopher Nietzsche.
THOMAS ELIOT: POETICA
Freud published in 1900 his most famous work “The interpretation of dreams” where he spoke about unconscious and he described it as that irrational force that can create, in some cases, psychical disturbing. He spoke also about the presence of the super - ego as that man aspects composed of all moral and social constraints and laws imposed form the outside and that influenced the behaviour of everyone of us.This new view of investigation of the human mind brought to the method of analysis of the “free associations”.
Nietzsche reflected about God and he arrived to the conclusion that He was died.
Bergson was a philosopher who introduced a new concept of time, dividing into:
• “historical time” that’s linear, external and measurable with the special distance;
• “psychological time” that’s internal, subjective and measurable with the emotional intensity of a particular moment lived.
Eistein, on the contrary, was a physic and he exposed the important theory about relativity, giving to time a subjective and a relative connotation.
All these important revolutions influenced inevitably modern poets and writes like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf, who developed in literature the interior monologue for bringing out the stream of consciousness of their characters.
In fact this new literary technique consisted on making not an external but an internal description (for this reason many stories developed only in one day) of confusion thoughts before they expressed in logical phases.
This period was called “Age of Anxiety” because of the general feeling of alienation in the society and a common attitude of isolation.
Thomas Stearns Eliot. Eliot was born in St. Louis, Missouri, into a prominent family. His cultural background was English and then European, in fact, from his birth and at the university of Harvard, Eliot studied Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian, studying Dante. In the 1910–1911 school year, Eliot lived in Paris and he studied at the Sorbonne, attended Henry Bergson’s lectures, reading the works of French Symbolists and touring the continent.
When the First World War broke out he went to London, where he published philosophical essays, and then he went to Oxford.