Tesina sulla rivoluzione industriale e il motore a scoppio

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Tesina molto approfondita corredata di immagini sulla Rivoluzione Industriale e la nascita e le sue conseguenze del motore a scoppio (26 pagine formato pdf)


The industrial revolution.

The changes that transformed England into a modern industrial country within the half of the 19th century weren't so violent as the term " Revolution " would indicate, but surely they were radical enaugh to merit this name.
The I.R. did not mean only a series of technical improvements but human and social changes too; in fact it reacted on man himself. The effect of these profound changes was to break up the harmony of the social order bringinig new classes into being and creating a gulf between capital and labour. This antagonism, which is easily met even nowadays in our industrialized civilization, led to the proletariats' struggle for the recognition of their rights.
So what determined the beginning of the I.R. was the passage from a state of domestic production to the concentration of the means of production in the haud of one employer. This change came first in England and from there gradually spread all over the World.

Tesina sulla nascita e sviluppo del motore a scoppio


One of the fundamental economic conditions that favoured the Brithish industrialization was the migration from the country to the town because of agriculture transformation ( enclosures ) which forced masses of countrymen to leave the country. They provided the labour needed for the I.R.
The changes that took place at this time in agriculture technique (new fertilizers, crop rotation, new agricolture machinery) , and in the distribution of classes among the rural population, created conditions without which the I.R. would have been impossible. The rapid industrialization of Britain was made possible also by its abundance of energy ( coal and iron ). At first it was coal which was the country's richest natural resource.
It supplied energy to the most important industries by means of the steam engine. Through canals and later mechanical transport, large quantities of goods were carried quickly and cheaply. Big industrial centres could be found araund coal minies, above all in the Midlands and in the north: they were full of people and black chimneys. Here conditions were bad: men women and children worked for long hours usually from 5am. to 9pm. and their wages were very low.

Tesina sulla Seconda rivoluzione industriale


This situation was possible because the state didn't interfere in the life of industrial towns. The invention of new machines led to an increasing in Steam engine. The production and the improved technology affected various industries.
An example is the textile industry, mainly the cotton production. Up to the middle of the 18th. century the machines used for making cotton and woollen cloth were very simple and were operated by hand. Towards the end of the century new machineries were invented like
the spinning jenny by HARGREAVES the mule by Arkwright. These inventions introduced the method of mass production. The factory system favoured a new society in England. At the top there were the upper and middle classes, made up of bankers, merchants and landowers.They had economic power as well as political power.

Tesina di terza media sulla Seconda rivoluzione industriale


Accadde in quel tempo
Come precedentemente espletato, il motore a combustione interna nacque nel 1852 ad opera degli ingegneri Barsanti e Matteucci i quali lo costruirono nelle officine Benini di Firenze.
Osservando la data (1852), possiamo ricondurci al periodo storico nel quale fu inventato. Il motore fu inventato durante il periodo della Seconda Rivoluzione Industriale durante la quale furono inventate molte macchine tra cui il motore a scoppio che venne applicato alle automobili.
La seconda rivoluzione industriale ebbe effetti più rapidi e sorprendenti della prima, ed influì in modo più determinante nella vita dell'uomo.
La Seconda Rivoluzione Industriale. Infrantisi gli slanci e gli ideali romantici contro la dura concretezza del reale, di gran lunga diverso da come era stato idealizzato, si rese necessaria una visione più concreta dei problemi, dei giochi politici, dei rapporti di potere.
La logica del profitto si sostituì a quella dei sentimenti, la concretezza oggettiva del reale prese il posto dell'ideale, le leggi dell'economia, dell'alta finanza, del capitalismo subentrarono al sogno e all'evasione in mondi lontani.
Il metafisico si trasformò nel fisico.
La seconda rivoluzione industriale rafforzò il carattere capitalistico della società, che prese una piega fortemente tecnologica e scientifica. Si può affermare che la II° Rivololuzione Industriale fu definita l'età DELL'ELETTRICITA'; DELL'ACCIAIO E DELLA CHIMICA ed età durante la quale ci fu uno stretto connubio tra scienza e tecnica.